By J. A. McLean
This quantity presents a finished survey of the idea, perform, and methods of calorimetry as utilized to the examine of strength metabolism in people and animals. Calorimetry is used to estimate dietary standards of guy and farm cattle and to judge varied meals. it's also a strong software utilized in study into basic dietary and physiological lifestyles approaches and within the evaluate of stresses imposed through irregular or serious environments. it truly is at present being utilized in numerous branches of clinical study and will be used as a diagnostic software in hospitals for research of metabolic problems. The authors speak about either direct calorimetry, which measures warmth loss without delay, and oblique calorimetry, the place warmth loss is inferred by means of size of a few of the chemical byproducts of metabolism. moreover, suggestions is equipped to the instrumentation, technical difficulties, and precautions essential to receive actual calorimetric measurements.
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Additional resources for Animal and Human Calorimetry
The rates of dilution of both isotopes may be calculated from the results of mass-spectrometric analysis of two samples of urine passed at different times; from these the rate of carbon dioxide elimination may be calculated. The method was originally very expensive due to the cost of the isotopes and its use was confined to small animals. Recently, however, increasing sensitivity of mass spectrometers have reduced the amount of isotope required and the method is being used for measurements on humans (Schoeller & Webb, Historical 23 1984; Schoeller & van Santen, 1982; Coward et ai, 1984).
1973; Young, Kerrigan & Christopherson, 1975; Thomson, 1979; Cammell et al, 1981). Lundy, McLeod & Jewitt (1977) have described a multicage system for poultry in which a common gas analysis module is switched sequentially between exhaust gases from each chamber in turn. A multicage system for rats has been described by Tobin & Hervey (1984). Open-circuit chambers for long-term measurements on humans have been described by Dauncey, Murgatroyd & Cole (1978) and by Jequier & Schutz (1983). Facemasks or head hoods (Kinney et al, 1964) have sometimes been used to avoid the slow response of open-circuit respiration chambers, which results from the long time taken for gas concentration levels to equilibrate in the necessarily large volume of the apparatus.
5 1. 5 1 of oxygen must have been used to oxidise carbohydrate. 75) = 2063 kJ (491 kcal). This type of calculation forms the basis for the well known table of values for analysis of mixtures of fat and carbohydrate which was modified by Lusk (1928) from original data of Zuntz and Schumburg. 2. 3 Protein Animal and vegetable proteins consist of a variable mixture of some 19 different amino-acids. Unlike fat and carbohydrate they cannot be completely oxidised to carbon dioxide and water. In land mammals the nitrogen from the protein is mostly converted into urea which is excreted in the urine.
Animal and Human Calorimetry by J. A. McLean