By Guoyao Wu
Content material: Discovery and Chemistry of Amino Acids Definition and Nomenclature of AA Discovery of AA Chemical homes of AA Protein Digestion and Absorption of Peptides and Amino Acids category and content material of Protein in Diets Definitions of Digestion and Absorption Protein Digestion and Absorption of Peptides and AA in Monogastric Animals Protein Digestion and Absorption of Peptides and AA in Ruminants Synthesis of Amino Acids Synthesis of AA in Tissues and Cells of Animals together with people normal Pathways for Synthesis of AA in Animal Cells particular Pathways for Synthesis of AA in Animal Cells Pathways for Synthesis of AA in Microorganisms Synthesis of D-AA in Animal Cells and micro organism Conversion of D-AA to l-AA in Animal Cells and micro organism Degradation of Amino Acids common features of AA Degradation in Animal Cells Pathways for Degradation of AA in Animal Cells Catabolism of D-AA in Animal Cells Catabolism of L-AA and D-AA in Microorganisms Synthesis and Catabolism of precise Nitrogenous components from Amino Acids creation of Dipeptides which includes Histidine or Its Methylated Derivatives Synthesis and Degradation of GSH construction of Gly-Pro-Hydroxyproline Synthesis and Catabolism of Polyamines Synthesis and usage of Creatine Synthesis and Catabolism of L-Carnitine Synthesis and Catabolism of Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotides Heme Synthesis and Catabolism Synthesis and Catabolism of Histamine Synthesis and Catabolism of Catecholamines, Thyroid Hormones, and Melanin Synthesis and Catabolism of Serotonin and Melatonin Synthesis and Catabolism of D-Glucosamine and Glycosaminoglycans Conjugation items for Excretion Synthesis of Urea and Uric Acid Ammonia creation and Toxicity in Animals Urea creation in Mammals Uric Acid Synthesis Comparisons among Uric Acid and Urea Synthesis Use of Isotopes for learning Amino Acid Metabolism uncomplicated options approximately Isotopes Interpretation of knowledge from Isotope Experiments capability Pitfalls of Isotopic stories Protein Synthesis historic views of Protein Synthesis Pathway Pathways of Protein Synthesis within the Cytoplasm and Mitochondria Biochemical features and value of Protein Synthesis Measurements of Protein Synthesis Intracellular Protein Degradation ancient views of Intracellular Protein Degradation Proteases (Peptidases) for Intracellular Protein Degradation Intracellular Proteolytic Pathways features and Physiological importance of Intracellular Protein Degradation Measurements of Intracellular Protein Degradation rules of Amino Acid Metabolism simple recommendations in Metabolism results of dietary and Physiological elements on AA Metabolism Physiological services of Amino Acids Roles of AA in Peptide Synthesis Roles of AA for Synthesis of Nonpeptide Molecules Regulatory Roles of AA in nutrients consumption, Nutrient Metabolism, and Gene Expression Roles for AA within the Immune reaction Use of AA in meals, treatment, and healthiness Efficacy and security of nutritional AA Supplementation Inborn mistakes of Amino Acid Metabolism Inherited ailments because of issues of AA Metabolism remedy of Inborn error of AA Metabolism nutritional specifications of Amino Acids historic views of nutritional AA necessities decision of AA specifications evaluate of nutritional Protein caliber Index
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Extra info for Amino acids : biochemistry and nutrition
This AA is an effective substrate for arginine synthesis. H. Wollaston as a component of a bladder calculus (“kystis” in Greek for bladder). J. Berzelius in 1832. E. J. Malaguti reported in 1837 that cystine contains sulfur. In 1884, E. Baumann discovered that cysteine was the product of cystine reduction. Subsequently, it was found in 1899 that cystine was a major constituent of horn protein. This observation raised the possibility of utilizing cysteine for polypeptide synthesis. The structures of cystine and cysteine were established by chemical synthesis in 1903–1904.
E Determined at 30°C. f Determined at 35°C. g l-Lysine–H O. 2 h l-Ornithine–HCl. MP, melting point; MW, molecular weight. 20 Amino Acids: Biochemistry and Nutrition Tastes of Crystalline AA The taste of AA results from their interactions with specific receptors [guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors] on the tongue (Fernstrom et al. 2012). l-Glutamate has a “meaty” taste. l-Alanine and glycine have a sweet taste, l-serine and l-threonine have a faintly sweet taste, and l-citrulline has a slightly sweet taste.
The structure of arginine was established through: (1) alkaline hydrolysis to yield stoichiometrically ornithine and urea in 1897 (E. Schulze and E. Winterstein), (2) arginase-catalyzed hydrolysis to yield ornithine and urea in 1904 (A. L. Sörensen). In 1924, A. Kossel discovered that arginine forms a highly insoluble and beautiful crystalline compound with 2,4-dinitro-α-naphthol-7-sulfonic acid. C. Rose and his colleagues in 1930. A. Krebs and K. Henseleit in 1932 revealed a key role for arginine in metabolic pathways.
Amino acids : biochemistry and nutrition by Guoyao Wu