By Geoffrey Burnstock Ph.D., D.Sc., F.A.A., Marcello Costa (auth.)
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Additional resources for Adrenergic Neurons: Their Organization, Function and Development in the Peripheral Nervous System
Since these drugs are known to disrupt microtubules, it was suggested that the microtubules in adrenergic axons are involved in the fast transport of amine storage granules (see Schmitt, 1968; Dahlstrom, 1971; Mayor, Banks, Tomlinson & Grigas, 1971; Banks & Mayor, 1972). It should be noted that axonal flow in adrenergic nerves has been examined only in nonterminal axons; no studies of axonal flow have been carried out on terminal varicose axons. 4 Origin, life-span and fate of adrenergic vesicles Granular vesicles are synthesised in the cell body and are transported to the nerve terminals by axonal flow (Dahlstrom,~~:1971) Banks & Mayor, 1972; 33 ADRENERGIC NEURONS Matthews, 1972).
However, a comparison of the composition of large and small granular vesicles in terminal varicosities has recently been reported (see Bisby & Fillenz, I97I; De Potter, Chubb & De Schaepdryver, I972; Bisby, Fillenz & Smith, I973). NA in isolated granules is associated with ATP and Ca2+ to form a complex. It has been claimed that the ratio NA: ATP in this complex is 4: I as in bovine chromaffin granules (Shore, I962; De Prada, Berneis & Pletscher, I97I). However, it has been suggested recently that, after taking into account mitochondrial contamination, the ratio is 7-I2: I (De Potter, Chubb & De Schaepdryver, I972), a ratio closer to the more recent figures for the adrenal medulla of rat and rabbit (O'Brien, Da Prada & Pletscher, I972).
4 BIOSYNTHESIS AND METABOLIC DEGRADATION OF NA Biosynthesis NA is synthesized from tyrosine in adrenergic neurons, in adrenal and extra-adrenal chromaffin cells. Early evidence for this sympathetic pathway came from studies on the adrenal medulla and only more recently the same pathway has been found in adrenergic neurons (see Goodall & Kirshner, 1958; von Euler, 1972). 1 Biosynthetic pathway and enzymes The pathway ofNA synthesis illustrated in Figure 8 was originally suggested by Blaschko (1939) and by Holtz (1939) following the discovery of dopa-decarboxylase (Holtz, Heise & Liidtke, 1938) and has been confirmed experimentally by many authors (see Blaschko, 1954, 1972a; Udenfriend, 1966a; Weiner, 1970; von Euler, 1972).
Adrenergic Neurons: Their Organization, Function and Development in the Peripheral Nervous System by Geoffrey Burnstock Ph.D., D.Sc., F.A.A., Marcello Costa (auth.)