By by Carl Robert Whitehead.
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Extra info for A reference grammar of Menya : an Angan language of Papua New Guinea
36 Both components of the emphatic pronoun generally agree in person and number with the referent, as is expected. The second instance in (47) is therefore unusual and the expected p« m«th would be acceptable in that context. 2 Demonstrative pronouns For reference to a ‘third person’ as opposed to one of the speech act participants, the personal pronouns given above are rarely used, to the extent that they are not even mentioned in Jordan’s 1963 manuscript. Instead, pronominal forms based on the demonstrative roots are used.
44 ‘speech’. 2). 3. g. Baruya, see Lloyd 1969) have a noun class system with recognizable class markers on the root and concord between the noun and modifying elements. No such system exists synchronically in Menya though there is residual evidence of its prior existence, most strongly in the terms referring to adult humans and their gender. ) mature adult adult advance in age young mature adult female `o«j« `o«x` « `o«gtdp« male pnj« pnx` « ,, These words are readily recognizable as containing two morphemes but none of the morphemes are recognizable in other forms and, for most nouns, no such structure is in evidence.
34 The mid-distance elevational roots are derived from the elevational roots presented in Table 10. 1 for further evidence of these forms, including the source of the –sh in the second ‘mid-below’ form. 3), the demonstrative pronominal forms discussed here function not only as free-standing pronouns but also as the post-head specifiers in noun phrases. Especially in that context but also occasionally when used as pronouns, a further enclitic can be added to the demonstrative to indicate that the NP/pronoun is identifying one of the speech act participants; these will be referred to as the PERSONALIZING CLITICS.
A reference grammar of Menya : an Angan language of Papua New Guinea by by Carl Robert Whitehead.