By Peter Rickard
This well-established and well known e-book offers scholars with all of the linguistic historical past they wish for learning any interval of French literature. For the second one version the textual content has been revised and up-to-date all through, and the 2 ultimate chapters on modern French, and its place as an international language, were thoroughly rewritten. beginning with a quick description of the Vulgar Latin spoken in Gaul, and the earliest recorded kinds of French, Peter Rickard strains the improvement of the language during the later heart a long time and Renaissance to teach the way it turned standardized in a close to smooth shape within the 17th and eighteenth centuries.
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Extra resources for A History of the French Language
The texts, when they have occasion to refer to the language of northern France, call it simply franceis, françois or roman(z), and make no further distinction. Both terms are somewhat vague. Roman(z) could mean any Romance vernacular, and therefore did not exclude Occitan. François is sometimes used in a way which suggests Île-de-France, but it may occasionally have a wider meaning, just as France itself, somewhat in advance of political events, could have an idealistic wider connotation. In explaining the meaning of an unfamiliar or exotic word, an author might say: ‘this is what it means en françois…’.
Charlemagne had been on friendly terms with Of fa of Mercia, and letters from the one to the other have come down to us. Relations between Normandy and England had been particularly close in the years leading up to the Conquest. Like the Norsemen, the Anglo-Saxons contributed something to the language of sea-faring, for the points of the compass, nord, sud, est, and ouest appear to be of Anglo-Saxon origin: so do the words varec ‘sea-wrack’; flotte ‘fleet’; rade ‘harbour road’; bouline ‘bowline’; and the root of the word bateau ‘boat’.
Haskins has shown, was that the feudal ties were only vertical and not lateral. Vassals had certain obligations to their overlord, as he had to them (though the late Carolingian kings were seldom able to fulfil them), but vassals had no obligations to each other, and they both could and did carry on private wars, or open brigandage, to the exclusion of any wider feeling of unity, let alone national awareness. Communities tended to be purely local in orientation, largely or even wholly self-sufficient in their economy.
A History of the French Language by Peter Rickard