By George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD
This e-book is the main complete reference grammar of Choctaw, an American Indian language spoken through nearly 11 thousand humans situated basically in Mississippi and Oklahoma. in keeping with nineteen years of box paintings with audio system of the Mississippi and Oklahoma dialects and greater than one hundred fifty years of written Choctaw fabric, A Choctaw Reference Grammar comprises the main entire description up to now of the morphology of the language in addition to a radical remedy of word constitution, note order, case marking, and complementation.The Choctaw tribe used to be divided into Oklahoma and Mississippi teams in the course of the Indian elimination of the 1830s. this day the vast majority of fluent audio system one of the Oklahoma Choctaws are greater than 40 years outdated, and few youngsters communicate the language. even supposing extra little ones one of the Mississippi Choctaws research the language, the quantity is declining. simply because language is essential to keeping the Choctaws’ lifestyle and either dialects of Choctaw are endangered, cautious documentation of the grammatical constitution of the language is significantly vital. Compiled by means of the best scholarly professional at the Choctaw language, George Aaron Broadwell, this quantity is either a pragmatic consultant to local audio system and an critical instruction manual for linguists.
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Additional resources for A Choctaw Reference Grammar
Since speakers uniformly 12. No doubt this is because these suffixes appear in both even-numbered and odd-numbered syllables with sufficient frequency that speakers have no difficulty in assigning them an underlying representation. 26 CHOCTAW REFERENCE GRAMMAR have short vowels in the underlying forms of these suffixes, they can be orthographically represented this way without a problem. 2. ' However, the class I1 prefixes are a lexical exception. 5. 1. Assimilations with -1i The verbal suffix -1i (discussed in chapter 8) is associated with a somewhat idiosyncratic set of assimilations.
3. Modern sources of textual information Several examples are taken from Broadwell (lggob), a collection of Choctaw jokes and folktales. Many of these folktales were originally recorded by the staff of the bilingual education program of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. I reelicited these texts with the late Mrs. Josephine Wade, and refer to them by text and line number. I use the following system of text numbers: TI T2 T3 T4 T5 "Why the owl lives alone" "The grasshopper and the ant" "The rabbit tricks the women" "How the bear got a short tail" "Possum tricks wolf" 4.
Gen. 3732) The suffixes -okii and -shkii are generally affected by this rule, and this is reflected in their spelling in traditional orthography, where they are written toke> and
A Choctaw Reference Grammar by George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD